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IRAQ: WATER CONTAMINATION
Title:
SD
Summary: IRAQ: WATER CONTAMINATION
Story No: 182266
Source: APTN
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 05/05/2000 04:00 AM
People:
Subscription:

Arabic/Nat

XFA

Iraq is facing growing water contamination as raw sewage flows directly into the Tigris River.

Raw sewage is also becoming a feature of children's playgrounds as it seeps around their homes.

As the risk of infection increases so does the need for spare parts for Iraq's water-treatment centres - many of which are currently out of service.

The current contamination of water supplies is thought to have increased mortality rates in Iraq in recent years.

As the hot summer months loom ahead, some fear that infection from contaminated water could reach catastrophic levels.

Iraq's water quality problem has escalated steadily since the Gulf War almost ten years ago.

Prior to the war, Baghdad received 450 litres of water per person every day which was supplied by seven treatment stations purifying water from the Tigris River.

The rest of the country received over 200 litres per person per day, purified and supplied by numerous central water-treatment stations and over a thousand smaller water projects.

Today, most of those treatment stations either lack spare parts or are completely out of service.

As a result, most of Iraq's 18 (m) million people have been directly exposed to water-borne disease through their tap water supply.

An investigation in 1991 found that most samples were contaminated with harmful bacteria.

Following the tests sewage was treated before being returned to the rivers.

Ten years on from the Gulf War, raw sewage is being dumped directly into rivers due to a lack of operable waste-water treatment plants.

Sewage is overflowing into the streets and around peoples' homes.

The children of Iraq have been innocently bathing and playing in these contaminated pools of water, raising fears that the heat of Iraq's summer will increase the current sewage problem and health risks.

Temperatures are expected to reach 50 degrees centigrade during the hot months, which could accelerate the incubation of bacteria.

The current situation has led to a four-fold increase in the incidence of diarrhoea amongst children under five years of age.

Overall, the contamination of water supplies is also thought to have increased mortality rates.

Locals believe that if current circumstances do not change, the rate of infection from contaminated water could reach catastrophic levels.

Many feel helpless against the onset of water-borne disease.

SOUNDBITE: (Arabic)

"The sewerage system is collapsing, everything is contaminated. Many diseases are spreading incredibly such as typhoid. We can do nothing about it."

SUPER CAPTION: Jamela Mahmoud, resident

Iraq has accused the America and Britain of blocking the delivery of Iraq's most needed spare parts to remedy the already inactive water-treatment centres.

Sanctions were originally imposed upon Iraq after the Gulf War.

Baghdad and Basra, Iraq - May 5, 2000

Baghdad

1. Various of sewage flowing into the Tigris River

2. Various of water pumps pumping contaminated water at the treatment station

3. Various of sewage floating on top of drinking water at the treatment station

4. Various of worker at treatment station putting Alum in the drinking water to sterilise it

5. Man shovelling chemical powder (Alum) to sterilise water and placing it into a wheelbarrow

6. Various of workers with wheelbarrows dumping sterilising chemical into a water canal

7. Various of woman testing water at the laboratory

Basra

8. Various of children playing near buildings and houses, surrounded by sewage

9. SOUNDBITE: (Arabic) Jamela Mahmoud, resident

10. Various of people receiving tap water via pipes

11. Little boy standing in front of dam of water

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Subjects: Contamination, Environment, Sewage treatment systems, Water bodies and features, Water, Wastewater Treatment, Global environmental issues, War and Unrest, Children, Utilities, Waste management, Child and Teen Health, Industries, Drinking Water Quality, Water pollution, Water utilities, Water Quality, Water pollution, Accidents and Disasters, Business, General News, Environment and nature, Rivers and streams, Fresh Water Quality
Locations: Iraq
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NETHERLANDS: THE HAGUE: WORLD WATER FORUM
Title:
SD
Summary: NETHERLANDS: THE HAGUE: WORLD WATER FORUM
Story No: 177845
Source: APTN
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 18/03/2000 04:00 AM
People:
Subscription:

English/Nat

The World Water Forum, a six-day international conference on worldwide water problems entered its second day on Saturday.

Amongst the 3500 experts present at the conference in The Netherlands were speakers from the African continent.

Theatrical performances not only showcased African culture on the Netherlands platform, but served as an entertaining interlude into the issues of providing clean running water and sanitation for those still living without in the new millennium.

The day's events went smoothly following a disruptive opening on Friday when protestors ripped off their clothes to protest against a Spanish dam project.

Despite the devastation of recent flooding in Mozambique and Southern Africa, many people living on the African continent have little or no access to clean running water.

Theodore Nkodo, Director of Central Operations in the African Development Bank Group revealed a strategy towards meeting the water and nutritional needs of the new African century.

SOUNDBITE: (English)

"First, access to portable water and clean sanitations should reach at least 50 percent by 2005, 75 percent by 2015, and almost the entire population by 2025. Food security at the input level of daily nutrition intake should reach at least 60 per cent of the nutritional needs of the population by 2005, rising to 80 per cent guaranteed by 2015 and full security by 2025."

SUPER CAPTION: Theodore Nkodo, Director of Central Operations, Department of African Development Bank Group

As the theme of African renaissance and unity develops within Africa so too does the acknowledgement of the basic needs of the people living on the continent.

The conference does not only intend to focus on Africa.

The six-day forum will bring together 3,500 water experts, government officials and politicians to address water-related issues such as flood and drought protection, the right of access to water and its geopolitical consequences, and sustainable agriculture.

Earlier this week, the World Commission on Water, an institution backed by the World Bank and the United Nations, said one (b) billion people around the world lack access to safe water and two (b) billion people live without adequate sanitation.

Discussions aim to centre around ways of supplying clean running water to the one-sixth of the world's population still living without.

Children played their part in the day's events as the world's water conservationists of the future.

Video technology and playful characters were drawn in to catch the young audience's attention and introduce them to the issues at hand.

The organizers of the conference have called for 180 (b) billion dollars U-S in annual global spending on water problems.

This amount is more than double the current expenditure on water issues.

Not all participants agree that supplying funds is the only solution to the draining supply of water worldwide.

Ismail Serageldin, chairman of the World Commission on Water, said on Friday that the world needs a drastic change in its attitude towards water.

He said alternative water sources need to be identified before existing supplies dry up.

The World Wildlife Fund criticised the conference's approach saying that not enough attention was being paid to the danger of tapping new water sources and the possible damage to natural habitats.

Health and social development will also be main themes at the conference.

Richard Jolly, head of an international group for hygiene and sanitation stressed Friday that three million children die each year because of poor access to sanitation.

He continued to say that if the world is to work towards a solution, communities and families need to be involved and not just expensive, high technology water projects.

The Hague conference is the second of its kind following the first in Marrakesh, Morocco in 1997.

At the end of the ministerial conference, ministers are expected to agree on a declaration that identifies seven challenges to achieve water security in the 21st century.

The seven challenges are meeting basic human needs, protecting ecosystems, securing food supply, sharing water resources, dealing with hazards, valuing water, and administering water supply wisely.

Ministers from some 150 countries will take part in the two-day event at the end of this forum, in what is expected to be the largest ever gathering of government ministers for water affairs.

The Hague, Netherlands, 18 March, 2000 (First Run 1600 GMT Europe late)

1. Wide exterior of Netherlands Congress Centre

2. Mid shot of the above

3. Interior showing banner reading "Southern Africa"

4. Wide of auditorium to show performance on stage

5. Woman dancing cultural dance

6. Close up of dancer's feet

7. Men on drums

8. Woman on stage pretending to eat from rural bowl

9. Pan from audience to performers on stage

10. Wide shot of conference taking place

11. SOUNDBITE: (English) Theodore Nkodo, Director of Central Operations, Department of African Development Bank Group

12. Audience

13. Man in audience takes off his glasses

14. Posters demonstrating water scarcity

15. Colour still of woman carrying water on her head

16. Colour still of boys with earthen pots on their heads

17. Wide of effects in auditorium

18. A live link on a screen on stage

19. Close up of woman talking on screen

20. Children on stage

21. Children greet a costumed character on stage

22. UNICEF display

23. Man seated in expo display

24. Close up on World Water Fair banner

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Subjects: Banking and credit, Financial services, Government and Politics, Banks, Banking, Credit and Investment Services, Water, Financial Services, Children, International organizations, Entertainment, Dance, Environment, Drinking Water Quality, Industries, Water Quality, Business, Development banking, Development Banks, Environment and nature, Fresh Water Quality
Locations: Africa
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BOSNIA: SOLDIERS EVACUATED AS FLOODS DESTROY MOSTAR BASE UPDATE
Title:
SD
Summary: BOSNIA: SOLDIERS EVACUATED AS FLOODS DESTROY MOSTAR BASE UPDATE
Story No: 20042
Source: APTV
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 27/12/1995 05:00 AM
People:
Subscription:

Natural Sound

French Foreign Legion soldiers have been evacuated from their base near Mostar in southwestern Bosnia after a dam burst, engulfing their camp in raging torrents of water.

Heavy rainfall had caused the River Neretva to rise to dangerous levels, bursting one dam threatening to break a second.

Sixty two soldiers have been evacuated by helicopter.

An Italian serving with the European Union police force in Mostar was killed when he lost control of his vehicle on a flooded road.

The floodwaters brought on by heavy rain broke through a dam at a hydro-electric plant north of Mostar.

Officials said two-thousand cubic meters of water were flowing over the dam per second, and water levels were fifteen metres above average.

A second dam is now under threat which could trigger major flooding throughout the area.

A state of emergency has been declared in the city, as water levels continue to rise.

Dozens of French military tents near the Neretva were covered by a wave of water, only their tops visible above the torrent that rose about eight hundred metres (yards) over its banks.

An Italian police officer with the European Union police force in Mostar, 37-year-old Major Ermanno Fenoglietti, was killed in a car crash, when he lost control of his jeep on a flooded road.

The French Foreign Legion stationed at Vrapcici, four kilometres from Mostar was evacuated in time, with no reported injuries.

Troops had to be lifted out by helicopter as all access to roads was cut off.

Officials have warned of a potential disaster if the second dam bursts.

Several hundred people from villages south of Mostar are also in the process of being evacuated from their homes.

In Mostar, the Neretva swept away two of three footbridges, which form the only link between the divided town which is controlled by Croats on one side and by Muslims on the other.

The main road between Mostar and Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital, has also been washed out.

The French troops are being accommodated at a makeshift camp at the NATO-controlled Mostar airfield.

Mostar, Sarajevo, 27 December 1995

1. Medium shot of destroyed hydro-electric power plant near Mostar

2. Heavy flooding around Mostar

3. Helicopter flying over flooded land

4. Various of hydro-electric power plant

5. Various of flood

6. Zoom in on tents in middle of water

7. Medium shot of house, pan to flood waters

8. Zoom in on IFOR camp in Vrapcici

9. Overturned police car

10. Various fast flowing river

11. IFOR tank in river

12. Tents underwater

13. Helicopter landing

14. Soldiers onto helicopter

15. Helicopter taking off

16. Second helicopter hovering

17. Cutaway residents watching

18. Vehicle being towed away

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Subjects: Automotive accidents, Transportation Accidents, Transportation, Natural disasters, Floods, Dams, Built environment, Human-made land features, Hydroelectric power generation, Renewable power generation, Weather conditions, Electric power generation, Electric utilities, Land features, Land, Renewable power generation, Alternative energy, Energy, Weather, Industries, Business, Electric Power Utilities, Electricity and Gas Utilities, Electric utilities, Utilities, Accidents, Electric Power Generation, Transportation Accidents, Environment and nature, Accidents and Disasters, General News, Energy, Floods, Environment
Locations: Europe
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Egypt - Launch of irrigation project
Title:
SD
Summary: Egypt - Launch of irrigation project
Story No: w033394
Source: WTN
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 09/01/1997 05:00 AM
People: Hosni Mubarak
Subscription:

T/I: 11:05:00

Egypt on Thursday (9/1) launched a huge project to irrigate the Western Desert, thus increasing the country's habitable area from 5.5 percent to 30 percent by the year 2025.

President Hosni Mubarak officially inaugurated the "New Delta" project which is the most ambitious since the creation of the Aswan High Dam.

SHOWS:

ASWAN HIGH DAM, EGYPT 09/01

(WITH ARABIC COMMENTARY)

WS Mubarak car arrives;

Mubarak meeting officials;

WS PAN of Lake Nasser;

CU Model of the project;

Mubarak being shown construction site;

Mubarak launches project by blowing up final pice of dirt separating the canal from the sea;

WS Mubarak car departs;

1.35

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Keywords: DSSE4 ASWAN DAM, africa, politic, irrigation, drought,
Subjects: Government and politics
People: Hosni Mubarak
Organisations: Egypt government
Locations: Egypt, Middle East, Egypt, North Africa, Africa
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ALBANIA: KOSOVO REFUGEE CRISIS: WATER SUPPLIES
Title:
SD
Summary: ALBANIA: KOSOVO REFUGEE CRISIS: WATER SUPPLIES
Story No: 127781
Source: APTN
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 19/05/1999 04:00 AM
People:
Subscription:

Albanian/Nat

The 100-thousand Kosovo refugees in Kukes are rapidly exhausting the supply of drinking water.

The town of Kukes has warned it could cut off the water as early as Thursday, according to the United Nations refugee agency which is involved in the negotiations.

But the head of the town's water system said no water cuts were imminent, though the town could run dry in two or three weeks if consumption continues at the current pace.

Kukes seems an unlikely place for a water shortage.

But water consumption has tripled since the refugee influx began.

The 100-thousand Kosovo refugees in this frontier town are rapidly exhausting the supply of drinking water.

In the town itself, water is available for only three hours in the morning and three hours in the evening.

Some refugee camps receive water from the town's system, while others have their water trucked in from a nearby well.

In this camp three trucks make ten trips each per day to provide the refugees with the necessary 20 to 23 litres of water that each family needs to survive.

The town of Kukes has warned it could cut off the water as early as Thursday, according to the United Nations refugee agency.

But the head of the town's water system said no water cuts were imminent, though the town could run dry in two or three weeks if consumption continues at the current pace.

SOUNDBITE: (Serb-Croat)

"The situation is very bad and will get worse day by day if nobody takes measures to provide other sources of water. It is not an issue of cutting water to the refugees but the problem is that there will be no water for them, no other source in 2-3 weeks "

SUPER CAPTION: Jashar Ciku, Director of Kukes water services

Most refugees have settled into tented camps or moved in with local families and want to stay for now in Kukes, which is only 15 miles (25 kilometres) from the Kosovo border.

The roughly 100-thousand refugees in Kukes are the largest single concentration of the almost 800-thousand people who have poured out of Kosovo in the past two months.

While Kukes is surrounded by lakes the water from these cannot be used because they are contaminated with lead and mercury.

SOUNDBITE: (English)

"The plan locally is the water is going to be shut off - the main supply - which means the people that are getting 20 litres a day we're really going to have to cut down. And so what we're trying to do is to get the authorities to agree to carry on providing water for at least another week, so that we can sort something out at the lake so we can purify the water from there."

SUPER CAPTION: Samantha Bolton M-S-F spokeswoman

Local officials in Kukes demanded that aid agencies immediately move some of the refugees now camped around the border town.

Aid groups and the Kukes authorities share the common goal of moving the refugees further south into Albania to get them away from the unstable border with Yugoslavia and reduce the burden on the town's meagre resources.

Kukes had fewer than 30-thousand residents before the NATO bombing campaign began on March 24.

Kukes, Albania - 19 May 1999

1. Wide of Kukes from across lake

2. Tent camp

3. Zoom out from M-S-F sticker on water tank

4. Group of refugees washing clothes in buckets

5. Various of buckets full of wet clothes

6. Group of refugees collecting water

7. Cutaway of water pipes

8. Sign on side of tank - "Improvement of water supply in District of Kukes"

9. Set up of Gashar Ciku at local administration for water

10. SOUNDBITE: (Serb-Croat) Jashar Ciku, Director of Kukes water services

11. Various of water tanker

12. Refugees washing clothes in buckets

13. Young boy sits on bucket as other refugees wash clothes

14. Set up of Samantha Bolton M-S-F spokeswoman

15. SOUNDBITE: (English) Samantha Bolton M-S-F spokeswoman

16. Refugees collecting water from tap

17. Young boy drinking from bottle of water

18. Young boy carrying bottles of water

19. Brown water in puddle

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Subjects: Social issues, War and Unrest, Migration, Water utilities, Industries, Business, Social Affairs, Utilities, Refugees, General News, International incidents, Refugees
Locations: Albania
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China Three Gorges
Title:
SD
Summary: FEATURE Changing Face of China AP focus on massive dam project.
Story No: 566807
Source: AP TELEVISION
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 01/06/2008 01:53 AM
People:
Subscription:

SHOTLIST:

Yichang City, Hubei Province - May 26, 2008

1. Wide of the wall of the Three Gorges Dam on a foggy day, pan right

2. Water churning at the foot of the dam wall

3. Wide of wall on foggy day

4. Crane structure on top of dam wall

5. Two men including Assistant Director of the Three Gorges Complex Management Bureau, He Wei (with red helmet) walking towards crane to look at a gauge

6. He Wei, looking at gauge

7. Close-up of gauge

8. SOUNDBITE: (Mandarin) He Wei, Assistant Director of Three Gorges Complex Management Bureau:

"The Three Gorges area is not on a seismic fault line, and the strongest earthquake can only be 5.0 magnitude if there is one in this region. Actually the dam is designed to withstand an earthquake of 7.0 magnitude. That's to say, even if there was an earthquake of 7.0 there would be no serious impact on the Three Gorges Dam."

Xingshan County, Hubei Province - May 25, 2008

9. Local resident Gan Yuanqing, walking down road beside site of recent landslide

10. Back shot of Gan Yuanqiing walking

11. Gan Yuanqiing pointing to area where the last landslide occurred

12. Wide of hillside where landslide happened, tilt-down

13. SOUNDBITE: (Mandarin) Gan Yuanqing, local resident:

"If the problem's not treated properly it's not safe to live here. The landslide can even get as far as the foot of the mountain, and a landslide won't stop till it runs out of space."

FILE: Meiping Village, Hubei Province - November 22, 2007

14. Wide of a house with large cracks in the walls

15. Close-up of cracks

16. Home-owner putting paper over cracks in interior walls

Gaoyang Town, Hubei Province - May 25, 2008

17. Mid of schoolboy Xiu Wei walking along road

18. Xiu Wei walking past his old school which has been damaged by landslide

19. Rear of school showing where landslide has run into it

20. Mid of windows of school, now glassless and showing damage

21. View seen through window of school, showing pile of earth against the building

22. Wide of Xiu Wei doing homework in his house

23. Close-up of Xiu Wei writing in his schoolbook

24. SOUNDBITE: (Mandarin) Xiu Wei, displaced schoolboy:

"It's so inconvenient for us to study at another school. The landslide damaged our school and my classmates and I all felt sad about it. I hope they can rebuild the school and we can go back as soon as possible."

FILE: Yichang City, Hubei Province - November 2007

25. Wide of Three Gorges Dam

26. Close of water pumping out in huge spray

Xingshan County, Hubei Province - May 25, 2008

27. Wide of workers breaking up concrete with sledgehammers

28. Close-up of sledgehammers hitting the concrete

29. Pan right from old town to new town that is being built up the slope

30. Various of new building

31. Wide of new town higher up bank

32. Wide of sunset over Gaoyang Town

STORYLINE:

If the Great Wall is the ultimate symbol of old China, then the massive Three Gorges Dam in Hubei province can lay a strong claim to epitomising the achievements of the thrusting, confident modern state.

The 22 (b) billion US dollar project is the world's largest hydroelectric scheme, and when fully on line next year it will provide enough power to light the equivalent of San Francisco, Los Angeles and Sacramento combined.

But for those living nearby national pride is mixed with fear as more and more landslides crash into homes and schools, and the dam is blamed for the problem.

Even on a foggy day, the scale is breathtaking; the dam's towering wall buttresses a reservoir 660 kilometres (410 miles) long.

It's been the dream of Chinese leaders for a century to harness the power of the Yangtze River, the world's third largest; when the Olympic torch crosses its wall it will show the world that the dream is a reality.

Among its features, the management claims, is its robustness.

The Three Gorges Dam is just 560 kilometres (350 miles) east of the epicentre of the recent devastating earthquake which saw shoddily built structures, such as schools, come crashing down, killing many.

It's the management's proud boast however that the dam suffered no damage.

They say it can withstand any seismic force likely to strike it.

"Even if there was an earthquake of 7.0 there would be no serious impact on the Three Gorges Dam," He Wei, Assistant Director of Three Gorges Complex Management Bureau, told AP Television.

For those living in its shadow though, there's another side to the story.

82-year old Gan Yuanqing has lived in nearby Gaoyang Town for most of his life.

In the last few years he says there have been more landslides than he's ever known before.

"If the problem's not treated properly it's not safe to live here," he said, pointing to where the latest one occurred a month ago.

The earth and rock smashed into homes and a school affecting almost 200 local people.

In Meiping village homes are literally falling down around them their owners.

Experts have warned that the waters from the giant reservoir are leaking into the porous rock.

The results; undermined foundations, and, as the loosely packed soil becomes heavier on the Yangtze's steep slopes, landslides that have killed scores of people in the past few years.

Ten year-old Xu Wei has his own concerns.

His was the school hit by tons of careening earth in Gaoyang last month.

It destroyed classrooms and walls.

Now, along with 900 other students, he has to go to another school but hopes the former school will be repaired soon.

"It's so inconvenient for us to study at another school. The landslide damaged our school and my classmates and I all felt sad about it. I hope they can rebuild the school and we can go back as soon as possible," he said.

Recently some Chinese authorities have admitted the prestigious project has caused grave problems; a rare occurrence in this tightly-controlled country.

It remains a highly sensitive subject, and other officials have sought to play down the extent of the environmental and human impacts.

But what is indisputable is that the Three Gorges Dam has disrupted the lives of (m) millions of people.

Settlements like Xingshan county will soon be engulfed by the rising reservoir so they're being knocked down and more than 5,000 people will have to move to new homes on an opposite embankment, 177 metres (580 feet) up, just above the planned final height of the water.

In all more than 1.4 (m) million people have been relocated from hundreds of towns and villages that were either in the reservoir's path or were deemed unsafe because of recurrent landslides.

They have received compensation but some say it isn't enough.

They are finding the prestige of the nation is a two-edged sword.

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Subjects: Property damage, Natural disasters, Landslides and mudslides, Earthquakes, Accidents and disasters, General news
Locations: China, Greater China, East Asia, Asia
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UNIFEED MEXICO  WATER CONFERENCE
Title:
SD
Summary: MEXICO / WATER FORUM WRAP
Story No: G00632
Source: UNTV
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 28/03/2006 12:40 PM
People:
Subscription:

SHOTLIST:

1. Wide shot, exterior, forum sign

2. Wide shot, exterior, Mexican flags at forum entrance

3. Wide shot, flags and sign with people in foreground

4. Zoom in, demonstration at night

5. Pan right, large paper-mache statue at rally

6. Wide shot, line of riot police

7. Wide shot, police in foreground, protestors in background

8. Wide shot, police helicopter in sky at night

9. Close up, smashed window

10. Close up, stones on ground

11. VOX POP (Spanish) David Garcia Ayala, resident of Mexico City:

"I am against the privatization of water, which is part of the global neo-liberal agenda. Water is a resource for all, for humans and for animals."

12. Close up, water with faces in background

13. Wide shot, Mariachi band

14. Close up, child playing with water in background

15. Tilt down, monitors at water forum

16. Close up, security monitor with people at forum

17. Med shot, sign

18. SOUNDBITE (English) Vanessa Tobin, UNICEF:

"There is one billion people in the world without water still. And those are mainly people in the poorest communities who don't have access to at least a bucket of water at a distance of 1 kilometer from their house. Things that we take so much for granted. And many people wondering around the rooms here still may not be aware that these basic issues are still a major problem."

19. Med shot, forum staff with brochures

20. SOUNDBITE (English) Susmita Shekhar, Sulabh International, India:

"Because In India, women face the biggest challenge as far as sanitation is concerned and there is no sanitation they have to go out in the dark be it dawn or dusk and they are open to molestation and other types of insults. And of course bad health."

21. Wide shot, Mexico City street

22. Wide shot, street with truck

23. Tracking shot, Maria Candelaria

24. Tracking shot, faucet with makeshift hose

25. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Maria Candelaria Torres de Lopez:

"Because the water is so dirty, sometimes we go for long periods without any water because the pipe gets clogged"

Med shot, interior Kitchen

Wide shot, Maria Candelaria in kitchen

26. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Maria Candelaria Torres de Lopez, resident of Iztapalapa:

"I have to bring all my dishes out there, and wash them there, because I only have water outdoors."

27. Med shot, "El Marino" Gregorio Lopez, standing in doorway

28. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Gregorio Lopez "El Marino," husband of Maria:

"They come and they demand money. So then we have to pass the hat around among all the neighbours, so they'll supply us with water."

29. Med shot, children with backpacks

STORYLINE:

Putting a much-needed spotlight on water management issues across the globe, the World Water Forum in Mexico City - billed as a conference to address the needs of the world's poor - also proved to be a magnet for protests from those who feared it marked a step towards "privatization" of a basic public utility.

A massive police presence kept protestors away from the Forum site. Protests included street theater, but also some confrontations. This resident of Mexico City supported the demonstrations.

VOX POP (Spanish) David Garcia Ayala, resident of Mexico City:

"I am against the privatization of water, which is part of the global neo-liberal agenda. Water is a resource for all, for humans and for animals."

But the Forum was also a welcome opportunity for many to spotlight problems that are so vital, so basic, and so widespread that they tend to escape the attention of decision-makers and the media except during global meetings like this one.

SOUNDBITE (English) Vanessa Tobin UNICEF:

"There is one billion people in the world without water still. And those are mainly people in the poorest communities who don't have access to at least a bucket of water at a distance of 1 kilometer from their house. Things that we take so much for granted. And many people wondering around the rooms here still may not be aware that these basic issues are still a major problem."

A problem that can have an especially negative impact on the lives of women, some at the conference said.

SOUNDBITE (English) Susmita Shekhar, Sulabh International, India:

"Because In India, women face the biggest challenge as far as sanitation is concerned and there is no sanitation they have to go out in the dark be it dawn or dusk and they are open to molestation and other types of insults. And of course bad health."

Water problems are all-too familiar to some residents of the Forum's host city, a huge urban area with more than 20 million people. Maria Candelaria Torres de Lopez lives in the neighborhood of Iztapalapa - a place plagued by water supply problems. The little water she gets comes through the makeshift pipe that leads into her apartment.

SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Maria Candelaria Torres de Lopez:

"Because the water is so dirty, sometimes we go for long periods without any water because the pipe gets clogged"

Her kitchen has no running water at all

SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Maria Candelaria Torres de Lopez:

"I have to bring all my dishes out there, and wash them there, because I only have water outdoors."

Her husband, a former bullfighter known as "El Marino" ('"The Sailor"), says the government trucks in water from time to time, but drivers won't deliver it unless they're given a generous "tip".

SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Gregorio Lopez "El Marino":

"They come and they demand money. So then we have to pass the hat around among all the neighbours, so they'll supply us with water."

In neighborhoods like this one access to water is still not a matter of life and death. But as the world population continues to grow, it may become just that for the generations to come.

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Locations: Mexico City, Mexico, North America, Mexico, Central America, Latin America and Caribbean
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ISRAEL: WEST BANK: WATER DISTRIBUTED TO PALESTINIANS
Title:
SD
Summary: ISRAEL: WEST BANK: WATER DISTRIBUTED TO PALESTINIANS
Story No: 138116
Source: APTN
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 01/07/1999 04:00 AM
People:
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English/Nat

A sight rarely seen in the West Bank -- Israeli's and Palestinians working together trying to fight a water shortage affecting the West Bank's Palestinian population.

The Israeli human rights organisation, Betselem, arrived in Beit Furik, a village near Nablus, with a water tank and bottles of mineral water to be distributed to thirsty Palestinians.

Betselem claims that it's only Palestinians suffering from a lack of water, not Israelis.

This bus arriving in the West Bank village of Beit Furik on Thursday was filled with Israeli human rights workers.

The workers, from the Israeli organisation, Betselem, are there to help Palestinian residents who are coping with a water shortage in their village.

Members of Betselem arrived with a water tank and cartons of bottled water. Children and village residents anxiously collected water from the tank and grabbled for the bottles of mineral water.

Some Israeli singers took part at the meeting in order to urge the Israeli government to change its water policy and make it equal for Israelis and Palestinians.

SOUNDBITE: (English)

"We're here because these nice people around me don't have water. Water is such a basic thing like air and food and I came here because I think Israeli people should know about the situation and do something about it because it's not possible that people exactly like me and you won't have water."

SUPERCAPTION: Dana Berger, Israeli singer

Betselem claims that some 180 Palestinian villages in the West Bank are not connected to any water system while all the Jewish settlements enjoy as many water as they want.

SOUNDBITE: (English)

"Also Palestinians need water to drink. It's not just Israelis and unfortunately my government and my country has for 30 years neglected the basic needs of the Palestinian population. There are 300,000 Palestinians which amounts to 20 percent of the Palestinian population of the West Bank that have no running water."

SUPERCAPTION: Eitan Felner, Director of Betselem

Nablus, West Bank, July 1, 1999

1. Bus of people arriving

2. People going out of the bus

3. Palestinians drinking from water tank tap

4. Palestinian kids fighting for bottles of water

5. Various of people of the village drinking

6. Israeli singer Dana Berger filling bucket with water

7. SOUNDBITE (English ) Dana Berger, Israeli singer

8. Palestinian woman showing dry water tap at her kitchen/ dirty

plates in sink

9. Palestinian children playing with water

10. SOUNDBITE (English) Eitan Felner, director of Betselem

11. Wide shot of the Palestinians waiting for water

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Subjects: Social issues, Lifestyle, Beverages, Food and drink, Human rights and civil liberties, Social Affairs, Bottled water, Non-alcoholic beverages
Locations: Israel
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Cyprus Drought
Title:
SD
Summary: NEWS FEATURE Island's water crisis worsens, no heavy rainfall since 2004
Story No: 533064
Source: See Script
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 15/08/2007 17:28 PM
People:
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SHOTLIST

AP Television

Cyprus, August 9 2007

1. Beach at "Aphrodite's rock' near Paphos, Cyprus

2. Postcards and tourists on Paphos beach front

3. The sea at Paphos

4. Urban sprawl at Limassol

5. Various of irrigation sprinklers in maize field near Paralimni

6. Kouris Dam (largest in Cyprus) near Limassol, severely depleted

7. Tilt down from tower which should be standing in water

8. Dried up spillway - sign "Deep water"

9. Asprokremmos Dam near Paphos

10. Another view of Asprokremmos Dam

11. Dried up spillway at Asprokremmos Dam

Nicosia, Cyprus, August 9

12. Christodoulos Artemis, Director, Water Development Dept. of the Cyprus Ministry of Agriculture Natural resources & Environment, talking with AP reporter

13. Christodoulos Artemis signing proposed plans for village water resource use

14. SOUNDBITE (English) Christodoulos Artemis, Director, Water Development Department:

"At this point I would say it's dangerous, I would not go into the critical description yet, but definitely we have to save water and try to cover our needs."

15. Newpaper headline in Cyprus "Water reserves dangerously low"

16. Newpaper headline in Cyprus "wasting water? Blame the foreign housemaids"

17. Various of car wash in Nicosia

Limassol area, Cyprus, August 9

18. Arid landscape

19. Sun and thistle

Nicosia, Cyprus August 9

20. SOUNDBITE (English) Christodoulos Artemis, Director, Water Development Department:

"Yes we have detected that for the last 35 years approximately the average rainfall on the island has dropped, we have had a steep drop in the rainfall on the island of about 15 - 20 per cent."

FILE photos, Cyprus - Courtesy of Water Development Department

21. File b&w photo women carrying water pitcher in 1960's

22. File b&w photo man operating water pump in 1960's

23. File photo Kouris Dam overflowing in 1998

AP Television

Nicosia, August 9

24. Dry farmland near Nicosia

25. Efi Xanthou, Councillor, Aglantzia Municipality near Nicosia and Cyprus Green Party spokesman showing AP reporters dry farmland

26. SOUNDBITE (English) Efi Xanthou, Green Party Spokesperson:

"We don't have a problem with people playing golf, we have a problem with the fact that on a very small island the government believes that in order to attract tourism they have to have build another fourteen golf courses all across the island."

Aphrodite Hills golf resort near Paphos, August 9

27. Various of golf course, golfers and adverts of luxury homes on the golf course

Nicosia, August 9

28. SOUNDBITE (English) Efi Xanthou, Green Party Spokesperson:

"You're creating more problems to the already acute problem of water shortages on an island and you're generally trying to create a sector in tourism that doesn't exist until now"

Near Nicosia, August 9, AP Television

29. Dry field on land of Andreas Tomouzos, local farmer

30. Sprinklers irrigate newly planted lettuce

31. Farmers

32. SOUNDBITE (Greek) Kyriacos Tomouzos, farmer:

(Talking about the old system of 'lagoumia" or qanats for bringing water to the land):

"The tunnel started here and went in a straight line. By the time it stretched, let's say two miles, it reached a depth of 30-40 feet. And the water came out from the hole here. Every 30 to 40 feet we had to dig a hole, pull the dirt out, and we had water."

Nicosia, August 9

33. SOUNDBITE (greek) Efi Xanthou, Green Party Spokesperson:

"People are not changing their views about water, suddenly because there's a pipe coming to our house we assume there's always going to be water there, and our whole policy, our way of dealing with water is not changing even though we can see that there's a shortage coming up."

Cyprus, August 9

34. Dry farmland near Nicosia

35. Large billboard advertising a golf resort

36. Arid land near Limassol

37. Dry river bed near Paphos

38. Dried up banks of Asprokremmos Dam

39. Goat's skull

40. Sunset over Cyprus

STORYLINE

Like all Mediterranean islands, Cyprus suffers from water scarcity and periods of drought. In the past they have built massive reservoirs, relied on desalination plants and made do with less water to get them through the dry years.

Since the 1970's Cypriots notice rainfall has been steadily decreasing - some say by as much as twenty percent.

Reservoir levels are dangerously low and could become virtually empty if the current long-running drought continues to the end of 2007.

The government has plans to make up for the shortfall but local environmentalists warn that allowing developers to build golf courses is irresponsible and sends the wrong message.

The Cyprus seen by over 2 million foreign visitors each year is represented by beaches washed by the warm Mediterranean, outdoor cafes and sunshine, lots of sunshine. The chances of your vacation being spoiled by a rainy day are very remote, and this is becoming a major problem for people who live here year round.

It hasn't rained significantly since 2004, the summers seem hotter, heat waves last longer and you don't have to go far from the beach to see the island is extremely dry.

In the island's breakaway Turkish Cypriot north, most residential areas get water only once every three days, especially in the summer.

Officials are considering bringing in water from Turkey in undersea pipes and distilling

sea water.

Down on the farm in the Greek Cypriot south, water is more plentiful.

Agriculture uses 69 percent of all water in Cyprus. In addition to water delivered by the local authorities, farmers dig boreholes and pump groundwater to irrigate crops.

The authorities say there are no immediate plans to restrict household supply but irrigation water for farmers has been cut back.

Environmentalists say it's time to stop growing thirsty plants like maize, mango and kiwi which are not natural species on the island. They want farmers to turn off the sprinklers and switch to drip irrigation in an effort to conserve.

Each year farmers have to dig deeper only to find less and poor quality water.

In the 1960's they began building dams in Cyprus, creating reservoirs to store enough water to see them safely through periods of drought. Less rainfall and rising demand in recent years means the reservoirs are almost empty. At Kouris Dam, the island's largest, the water level was just 12.2 per cent of capacity at the end of July - less than half what the reservoir held during the same period in 2006.

Island-wide reservoir capacity stands at just 16.6 percent and the government knows that without rainfall by the end of the year they will begin 2008 with only 2 million cubic metres of water. Cyprus presently consumes over 260 million cubic metres annually.

Christodoulos Artemis heads the Water Development Department. He describes the situation as "dangerous, not yet critical," and points out that restrictions have already been placed on the farmers. He hopes to make it through the coming year without having to turn off the supply to domestic consumers. His options are limited.

Cyprus has two desalination plants up and running and will need to build more. But desalination is energy intensive - burning fossil fuel to make seawater drinkable and creating carbon dioxide in the process. EU-member Cyprus is committed to cutting 23 percent of greenhouse gas emissions by 2012. More desalination plants would make that goal unlikely.

In a bid to conserve water, the government is offering subsidies for the installation of gray water recycling systems in households and connecting boreholes to toilets.

It also covers part of the cost for new boreholes aimed at tapping the low grade water under the cities that mainly comes from cesspools.

Christodoulos Artemis hopes that by using low grade water for watering the garden and flushing the toilet, significant quantities of treated water can be saved for drinking and washing.

In the meantime most consumers appear to ignore the impending crisis. The "Hyper Car Wash" in Nicosia still does good business and home owners upbraided for hosing down their patios blame foreign domestic servants for not understanding the rules.

The authorities can impose fines for wasting water and want to increase the penalty for washing the veranda to euros 85 - but offenders have to be caught in the act and the law is difficult to enforce.

"People are not changing their views about water, suddenly because there's a pipe coming to our house we assume there's always going to be water there," says Cyprus Green Party councillor Efi Xanthou, "Our whole policy, our way of dealing with water is not changing even though we can see that there's a shortage coming up."

Efi sees a lot wrong with the government's water policy. She wants curbs on irrigation, a single, unified water management entity, sewage recycling on a big scale and serious work on the network of pumps and pipes which could be leaking as a much as 40 percent of the precious liquid back into the ground.

But the worst government decision, according to Efi, was to grant permits to develop golf courses. Cyprus has three at present and a further fourteen are in the planning stages. The golf courses tend to be exclusive resorts where foreign visitors buy holiday homes overlooking the greens.

According to the Cyprus Green Party, golf courses need massive amounts of water the island simply cannot provide. They hope the developers will build their own recycling plants to get the most out of sewage and their own runoff, but the rules are unclear. The three existing golf resorts all bought water from the central government at higher than market rates.

Efi Xanthou warns that at some point in the not too distant future golf course operators faced with huge water bills could simply turn off the sprinklers and leave the island with a blight of brown fairways and lots of angry investors.

It hasn't always been like this. Kyriacos Tomouzos has been farming his land on the outskirts of Nicosia for most of his 86 years. At the beginning of August his son, Andreas, was watering a field of lettuce seeds while Kyriacos watched from the cab of their blue pickup.

Before the arrival of plastic pipes, pumps and sprinklers, Tomouzos watered his crops from a system of "lagoumia' or "qanats" - underground passages bringing sweet water from aquifers deep in the earth. To find his "lagoumia" a farmer needed the services of a water diviner.

"The tunnel started here and went in a straight line. By the time it stretched, let's say two miles, it reached a depth of 30-40 feet. And the water came out from the hole here," Tomouzos says, gesturing to the ground, "every 30 to 40 feet we had to dig a hole, pull the dirt out, and we had water."

Water divining is an ancient skill and present day practitioners hard to find, and even if a diviner could point to a fresh source, drawing more ground water cannot be a long term solution to the shortage facing Cyprus. Which leaves the islanders with that other ancient option - praying for rain.

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Subjects: Water utilities, Natural resource management, Dams, Recreational golf, Hotels and resorts, Production facilities, Political parties, Coastlines and beaches, Travel, Government and politics, Desalination, Recycling, Utilities, Industries, Business, Environment, Environment and nature, Recreational sports, Outdoor recreation, Recreation and leisure, Lifestyle, Accommodations, Corporate news, Political organizations, Water treatment, Water management, Water environment, Water management, Eco-friendly practices, Recycling, Waste management
Organisations: U.S. Green Party
Locations: Cyprus, Nicosia, Western Europe, Europe
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KOSOVO: DRINKING WATER SHORTAGE
Title:
SD
Summary: KOSOVO: DRINKING WATER SHORTAGE
Story No: 138040
Source: APTN
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Date: 01/07/1999 04:00 AM
People:
Subscription:

Eng/Albanian/Nat

Kosovo is short of clean drinking water after the old pumps and pipes were destroyed during NATO's bombing campaign.

Many are contaminated with trash and even dead bodies, causing a severe health risk.

In the town of Glogovac, 25 kilometres west of the provincial capital Pristina, most of the 20-thousand inhabitants have been drinking from a stand pipe next to a stagnant pool.

Kosovo's battered infrastructure will take years to mend, but the top priority for K-FOR forces and aid agencies is supplying clean water to the province.

These children have no choice but to drink dirty water.

Mejreme Zekaj has been using the well in her family backyard for water.

SOUNDBITE: (Albanian)

She says she knows it was contaminated and not good for the children but they had to drink from it or stay thirsty.

SUPER CAPTION: Mejreme Zekaj, Glogovac resident

For K-FOR and the aid agencies that are working on Kosovo, installing enough pipes will Kosovo will take a long time.

SOUNDBITE: (English)

"The old system was destroyed, wells are contaminated. We hope to be able to use new pipes to make clean water to everybody but there might be problems with landmines in the area."

SUPER CAPTION: Oxfam Press Officer

The British charity Oxfam has provided a pump, a storage tank, and piping which British soldiers have installed.

It's no east task - first they had to inspect the area for mines, and once the pipes and pumps are in place chemicals such as chlorine have to be added.

But the end result is that these locals can collect and drink water from a relatively clean well.

Glogovac, Kosovo July 1 1999

1. Wide shot of damaged houses on road

2. Close up stagnant water on ground

3. Children collecting dirty water

4. Close up of jug

5. Boy with bottle

6. Children drinking water from bottles

7. Close up of child drinking

8. Woman at well

9. SOUNDBITE: (Albanian) Mejreme Zekaj, Glogovac resident

10. Various of British soldiers unloading water pipes from truck

11. SOUNDBITE: (English) Ian Bray, Oxfam Press Officer

12. Soldiers clearing mines with metal detectors

13. Children and old man collecting clean water

14. Close up of buckets

15. Children and old man carrying buckets down street

16. Wide shot of children carrying buckets

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Subjects: Metals and minerals, Children, Environment and nature, Government and Politics, Fresh Water Quality, Metal mining, Water, Mining, Materials, Business, Drinking Water Quality, International organizations, Water Quality, Industries, Environment
Locations: Pristina
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