Thousands of volunteers have fanned out across the West Bank in the first census conducted by the Palestinian Authority.
On Wednesday, questionnaires will be collected in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
But the Israeli government is trying to block the census in east Jerusalem, which is claimed by many Palestinians as a future capital.
The Palestinian Authority sees its first independently conducted census as another step towards nationhood.
On Wednesday, census workers are to begin collecting questionnaires handed out earlier in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
But the chief organiser of the census refused to say on Tuesday whether the count would include east Jerusalem, where the Palestinians hope to establish a capital.
The Israeli police have made it clear they will not allow collectors access to the area.
But unofficial reports say questionnaires have been distributed in this highly sensitive area.
A reliable count of Palestinian residents in east Jerusalem could serve as a bargaining chip in future negotiations on the final status of the city.
But the Palestinian Authority says it is important for them to establish better information about their people.
"The census is basically an effort on the Palestinian side to put their house in order so that they can be in a better position to serve the public using that information to better distribute the resources and to optimise the use of the resources."
SUPER CAPTION: Hassan Abu Libdeh - Head of Palestinian Bureau of Statistics
The Palestinians have held a series of rallies to publicise the census which has done little to appease the Israeli leadership.
Israel believes the census will challenge its claim of sovereignty over Jerusalem.
It captured east Jerusalem from Jordan in the 1967 Mideast war and annexed it into its capital.
Israel claims the census violates the peace accords that give the Palestinians limited autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza.
"Even though we are talking about something which is symbolic in nature, we certainly expect the Palestinians to keep to the letter of the agreement that they signed. By trying to even symbolically compromise Israel's sovereignty in Jerusalem, we think that this is something that is unacceptable and we're not going to stand by and even let them take symbolic actions.
SUPER CAPTION: Moshe Fogel, Israeli Government Spokesman
Palestinian minister Hanan Ashrawi denied that Israel has sovereignty over Jerusalem.
She believes it is occupying the city - and can not stop the census.
"Jerusalem is not under Israeli law, it is under Israeli military occupation. That as far as international law is concerned is the status. There's nothing to prevent us from conducting our census unless Israel wants to use violence to prevent this census.
SUPER CAPTION: Hanan Ashrawi, Palestinian legislator
The final results of the census are due on January the fourth.