2. SOUNDBITE (English) David Holland, NYU Air and ocean scientist:
"So this is Helheim Glacier far off to my right, in front the melange is the Helheim Fjord. And this glacier has retreated more than 10 kilometres or so in the last decade or so from that position far off from my left to where you see it today."
3. Aerial view of cracks in ice
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4. SOUNDBITE (English) David Holland, NYU Air and ocean scientist: "So we have some instruments today that we are putting on the glacier. Two different types. One is GPS, which Brian is hooking up now. And the GPS has an antenna, which is over here and with that we can see how the ice minute-by-minute how it moves forward into the ocean and how it moves up or down."
5. Tight of drilling
6. Drone of study area
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7. SOUNDBITE (English) David Holland, NYU Air and ocean scientist:
"We are moving into a medium, understanding a substance of glacier and ice that is far more difficult than the atmosphere and the ocean, it's far more complex material. It's a fluid, it's a solid, it breaks, so it does things we observe but we don't understand, so it's very important to get this work done, if we are going to deliver a forecast, if you will, on sea level."
8. Drone shot of base camp overlooking glacier
9. Flowers on the rock
10. Students sitting on the top of the mountain, Helheim Glacier in the background
This is where Earth's refrigerator door is left open, where glaciers dwindle and seas begin to rise.
New York University air and ocean scientist David Holland, who is tracking what's happening in Greenland from both above and below, calls it the end of the planet.
He is referring to geography more than the future.
Yet in many ways, this place is where the planet's warmer and watery future is being written.
It is so warm here, just inside the Arctic Circle, that on an August day, coats are left on the ground and Holland and colleagues work on the watery melting ice without gloves.
In one of the closest towns, Kulusuk, the morning temperature reached a 52 degrees Fahrenheit (10.7 degrees Celsius).
The ice Holland is standing on is thousands of years old.
And in the next year or two, this could be gone, adding yet more water to rising seas worldwide.
Summer this year has hit Greenland hard with record-shattering heat and extreme melt.
By the end of the summer, around 440 billion US tons (400 billion metric tonnes) of ice - maybe more - will have melted or calved off Greenland's giant ice sheet, scientists estimate.
Greenland had its biggest single-day loss of ice on August 1, where 12.5 billion tons of ice melted from the surface, scientists report.
That's over 40 billion tons more than the average for this time of year.
And one of the places hit hardest this hot Greenland summer is here on the southeastern edge of the giant frozen island: Helheim, one of Greenland's fastest-retreating glaciers, has shrunk about 6 miles (10 kilometres) since scientists came here in 2005.
According to several scientists, also studying melting ice in Greenland, what's happening is a combination of man-made climate change and natural but weird weather patterns.
Glaciers here do shrink in the summer and grow in the winter, but nothing like this year.
Summit Station, a research camp nearly 2 miles high (3,200 metres) and far north, warmed to above freezing twice this year for a record total of 16.5 hours.
Before this year, that station was above zero for only 6.5 hours in 2012 and once in 1889.
This year is coming near but not quite passing the extreme summer of 2012 - Greenland's worst year in modern history for melting, scientists report.
A NASA satellite found that Greenland's ice sheet lost about 255 billion metric tons of ice a year between 2003 and 2016, with the loss rate generally getting worse over that period.
At Helheim, the ice, snow and water seem to go on and on, sandwiched between bare mountains.
The only thing that gives a sense of scale is the helicopter carrying Holland and his team.
As pilot Martin Norregaard tries to land his helicopter on the broken-up part of what used to be glacier - a mush called a melange - he looks for ice specked with dirt, a sign that it's firm enough for the chopper to set down on.
Holland and team climb out to install radar and GPS to track the ice movement and help explain why salty, warm, once-tropical water attacking the glacier's "underbelly" has been bubbling to the surface.
"We are moving to the medium, understanding of substance of glacier and ice that is far more difficult than the atmosphere and the ocean, it's far more complex material. It's a fluid, it's a solid, it breaks, so it does things we observe but we don't understand," Holland said.
Holland suspects that the warm, salty water that comes in part from the Gulf Stream in North America is playing a bigger role than previously thought in melting Greenland's ice.
And if that's the case, that's probably bad news for the planet, because it means faster and more melting and higher sea-level rise.
According to NASA scientists, by the year 2100, Greenland alone could cause 3 or 4 feet (more than 1 metre) of sea-level rise.
So it's crucial to know how much of a role the air above and the water below play.
"It's very important to get this work done if we are going to deliver a forecast, if you will, on sea level," said Holland.